Part I

History of Petroleum Research in Madagascar


1.1 An overview of  the 1909 to 1960 period and the still prevalent guiding principles of the Société des Pétroles de Madagascar (SPM)

    1.1.1 The 1909-1945 period

    1.1.2 The 1946-1955 period

    1.1.3 The 1956-1960 period


1.2 Evolution of the geophysical methods and the values adopted for the geophysical parameters

    1.2.1 The geophysical methods applied to the study of the Morondava Basin

    1.2.2 The values given to the geophysical parameters


1.3 The five historical stages of oil exploration in Madagascar


Part II

On Tectonics and the Origin of Madagascar


2.1 Pierre L. Cliquet ideas (1957)

    2.1.1 The main characteristics of the western tectonics

    2.1.2 The general orientation of the fractures and the tectonical motor

    2.1.3 The Style of Sedimentary Basins


2.2 Leons KOVISARS IDEAS (1970)

    2.2.1 The fractures : theory and definition

 Principal stresses

 Definition of fractures

 Fractures roses


    2.2.2 The outcome from the Morondava Basin

 Force nature


 Madagascar tectonic history.


2.3 The ideas of Giovanni FLORES (1970)

    2.3.1 The Pre-Karroo

    2.3.2 The sedimentary deposits and the volcanisms

    2.3.3 Conclusions


2.4 The ideas of Jan KUTINA(1971)                    

    2.4.1 Generalities

    2.4.2 Fracture systems and principal faults


2.5 The ideas of J.R. HEITZLER AND R.H. BURROUGHS  (1971)


2.6 The ideas of Robert G. BERTAGNE (1973)

    2.6.1 The Moody and Hill Law                   

    2.6.2 A possible pre-Hercynian system

    2.6.3 A probable Hercynian system



Part III

Our Thinking


3.1 A brief review of oil exploration and drillings during the period 1968-1973


3.2 The tectonics and origin of Madagascar according to the Moody and Hill Law

    3.2.1 The possible pre-Hercynian system (Caledonian ?)

    3.2.2 The probable post-Hercynian system (Cretaceous)

    3.2.3 The justification of the lateral displacements

    3.2.4 The relative ages of the two systems

    3.2.5 Proceeds


3.3 A tentative theory on the origin of Madagascar

    3.3.1 Generality

 Crustal stress and deformation

 The rupturing of a continent and the expansion of an ocean

 The hypothesis of Du Toit and King

    3.3.2 The pre-Hercynian system

 The stress F1 effects

 The Jurassic phenomenon of the Morondava Basin

    3.3.3 The post-Hercynian system

    3.3.4 Observations on the division of Madagascar into three blocks

 The volcanic eruptions and flows on the Madagascar Axis

 The volcanic intrusions of the Western Coast

 The continental origin of the Cretaceous formation of the Majunga Basin

    3.3.5 Conclusions


Part IV

The problems of petroleum research in Madagascar


4.1 The relative weight of the different factors

    4.1.1 Sedimentary basin evaluation

    4.1.2 Specific Structure Evaluation


4.2 The other factors

    4.2.1 The geochemical and geothermic temperatures

    4.2.2 The depths


4.3 On the theory of petroleum generation


4.4 The source rocks

   4.4.1 Classification

   4.4.2 The post-Karroo source rock

   4.4.3 The Karroo source rock


4.5 The reservoir rock

   4.5.1 The Karroo reservoir rock

   4.5.2 The post Karroo reservoir rock 


4.6 The Malagasy Unconformities


4.7 The Karroo data

   4.7.1 The Sakamena

   4.7.2 The Isalo

   4.7.3 Interpretation of the results


4.8 The post-Karroo Data

    4.8.1 Unconformity and salinity

    4.8.2 The shows

    4.8.3 The temperatures


Part V

The petroleum zones of interest


5.1 Delineation of the zones of interest

5.2 The petroleum hinges

   5.2.1 The high zones and main horsts
 The northern segment of the Tsiribihina region
 The southern segment of the Tsiribihina region

   5.2.2 The thinning zones

   5.2.3 Four specific analyses
 The Onilahy southern zone
 The Berevo structure
 The Manja-Andranoparasy structure
 The East Kirindy structure

5.3 Our seven petroleum zones of interest

   5.3.1 The southern Serinam zone or Tsiribihina-Morondava

   5.3.2 The Miandrivazo-Malaimbandy hinge

   5.3.3 The Bemaraha zone

   5.3.4 The Beroroha zone

   5.3.5 The Narinda zone in the Mahajanga Basin

   5.3.6 The Mangoky Delta zone

   5.3.7 The Lambosina zone


Part VI

The discovery of gas in West Manambolo


6.1 An overview of oil exploration in the 1980-1992 period

6.2 Analysis of Amoco prospects

   6.2.1 Betsimba

   6.2.2 Beloha

   6.2.3 Manja Dome and Etang

   6.2.4 Fanatera

   6.2.5 West Manambolo

   6.2.6 Critical observations


6.3 The West Manambolo gas field

    6.3.1 The Structure

    6.3.2 The assumptions adopted

    6.3.3 The results obtained

    6.3.4 Distillate or condensate ?


6.4 A prospect for producing urea from the West Manambolo gas in 1988


Part VII

A tentative synthesis of past and recent data


7.1 The major unconformities of Madagascar

   7.1.1 The intra-Isalo unconformity

   7.1.2 The basal Jurassic or Karroo top unconformity

   7.1.3 The Middle/Lower Cretaceous  unconformity

   7.1.4 Conclusion


7.2 The Jurassic in the Malagasy sedimentary basins

   7.2.1 The Morondava Basin

   7.2.2 The Mahajanga Basin

   7.2.3 Conclusion


7.3 The Cretaceous zones of interest

   7.3.1 Some interesting Cretaceous source rocks

   7.3.2 The Belo-upon-Mer zone

   7.3.3 The other Cretaceous structures

   7.3.4 The Mangoky Paleodelta deposits

   7.3.5 Conclusion


7.4 The Lower Sakamena

   7.4.1 Introduction

   7.4.2 A brief history

   7.4.3 The records
 Porosity and permeability

   7.4.4 Observations and  conclusion : The importance of the Karroo Corridor





8.1 Summary of some factors and their effects

   8.1.1 The temperatures
 The geochemical temperature or T° max
 The geothermic temperature

   8.1.2 The depths

   8.1.3 The source rocks

   8.1.4 The unconformities


8.2 Delineation of the petroleum interest zones

   8.2.1 Methodology

   8.2.2 The complementary first order fractures

 The N.E. Coast fracture

 The Ampasidava  structural axis

 The Narinda structural axis

 The Bongolava structural axis

 The Ranotsara fracture

 The Befandriana flexure

8.3 Our about 50,000 square km five interest zones

8.4 Personal opinions and recommandation


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